Creating a Rails admin panel from scratch, part 1: The dashboard

July 31, 2012

In the past, I’ve written about ActiveAdmin and RailsAdmin, two gems for adding Django-like administrative systems to Rails applications. However, they’re not for everybody or every application. Let me state up front that I do like both of these products. I’ve got more experience with the former, but they’re both solid solutions for adding user-friendly backends to your applications.

So why not just use them, rather than build something from scratch? Three big reasons:

  • Limit additional dependencies: ActiveAdmin and RailsAdmin are full-blown Rails applications in their own right. With each comes a long list of requirements of other gems you need to install to get them running. At best, this adds to your app’s memory footprint. At worst, these gem dependencies can conflict with those of the business side of your application, create hassles with the asset pipeline, or cause other unforeseen problems as you develop and deploy.
  • Easier to maintain: By building an administration backend that only does what you need it to do, and isn’t a generalized solution, you’ll be better able to keep it running for the long haul–both for adding features and keeping your application secure.
  • A good learning opportunity: Nothing in this process is rocket science, but it does involve a few Rails techniques you might not deal with on a day-to-day basis.

In this series, I want to walk through creating a custom administration panel for a Rails application. For beginners, it should be a good deviation from the basic approach to application-via-scaffolds, including namespacing and creating some files without generators. Intermediate Rails developers can get exposure to test-driven development.


Note: This isn’t super-complicated, but explaining all the steps can be a little details–thus, a multipart series.


This post assumes you know how to create Rails 3.x applications, either via scaffold generators, hand-editing of MVC-type files, or a combination of the above. (For the record, I typically use generators to create bare controllers and models, and add views and other files by hand as I need them.) This implies you’ve got the basic command line chops, know how to manage gem dependencies with Bundler, and so on.

We’re going to use RSpec to do a little test-driving in this project. Strictly speaking, you don’t need to know RSpec, but you should probably at least grasp some of the concepts behind testing if you want to follow along with that aspect of the series. You can check out my earlier series on RSpec for a short primer, or (shameless plug alert) get a bit deeper introduction by purchasing my self-published book on RSpec for $12.

The application

Behind the scenes, I’ve built a simple little blogging application with an articles scaffold and an authentication system. See Authentication from Scratch (Revised) from Railscasts (subscription required) to see the basic approach I followed to set up logins for the application. One place I’ve cheated: For the most part I’ve generated a lot of code ahead of time, and I’ve ignored the tests my scaffolds generated. I also wanted to show you a nice trick for adapting existing, scaffold-generated controllers and views to an admin panel interface. I typically wouldn’t do that in a real Rails application, but I wanted to make this tutorial specific to admin panels.

As we work through this project we’ll work up some request specs for the following tasks–and more importantly, make them pass:

  • Allow registered users to access an administration dashboard
  • Allow registered users to manage articles via the administration panel
  • Allow registered users to manage user accounts via the administration panel

You can get the complete application from Github–specifically, check out the dashboard branch.

The dashboard

Let’s start with a request spec for the dashboard itself. This dashboard will allow users to hit up something like http://sampleapp.com/admin and access administrative functions, provided they log in correctly. Here’s what the basic spec might look like:

# spec/reqeusts/admin_spec.rb

it "accesses the dashboard" do
  User.create(
    email: 'user@example.com',
    password: 'secret',
    password_confirmation: 'secret'
  )

  visit root_path
  click_link 'Sign In'
  fill_in 'Email', with: 'user@example.com'
  fill_in 'Password', with: 'secret'
  click_button 'Sign In'

  current_path.should eq admin_dashboard_path
  within 'h1' do
    page.should have_content 'Administration'
  end
  page.should have_content 'Manage Users'
  page.should have_content 'Manage Articles'
end

I’m a big fan of using Guard to automatically run specs as they’re added or edited; once we place this one in spec/requests/admin_spec.rb we get red, failing specs almost immediately. This is to be expected–our scaffolding and behind-the-scenes work has given us a User model and a login form, but we don’t have a route for my as-yet-created dashboard. Let’s create one now in the application’s routes.rb file:

# config/routes.rb

namespace :admin do
  get '', to: 'dashboard#index', as: '/'
end

We’re using a namespace in our routes definition to create a group of related URIs. In this case, they’ll all be namespaced under admin. The dashboard is the first step. The above route allows us to access /admin in our app via admin_path. We’ll add more routes to it in a moment, but first we’ve got another failing test to fix:

Failure/Error: current_path.should eq admin_path

  expected: "/admin"
       got: "/"

  (compared using ==)
# ./spec/requests/admin_spec.rb:17:in `block (2 levels) in <top (required)>'

Can you guess the problem? It turns out the error in sessions_controller.rb. The user is able to sign in, but is redirected back to root upon success, not /admin. We can fix that by opening the controller and redirecting to the correct address in the create method.

# app/controllers/sessions_controller.rb

def create
  user = User.find_by_email(params[:email])
  if user && user.authenticate(params[:password])
    session[:user_id] = user.id
    redirect_to admin_url, notice: "Logged in!"
  else
    flash.now.alert = "Email or password is invalid."
  end
end

Now we get a new error:

Failures:

  1) site administrator accesses the dashboard
     Failure/Error: click_button 'Log In'
     ActionController::RoutingError:
       uninitialized constant Admin
     # (eval):2:in `click_button'
     # ./spec/requests/admin_spec.rb:15:in `block (2 levels) in <top (required)>'

This one isn’t quite as evident, but we’re getting this error because we don’t have a dashboard controller to route to. Let’s add it from the command line:

rails generate controller admin/dashboard index

Notice that we’re creating the controller in admin/dashboard. This will generate the controller within the subfolder app/controllers/admin; its views will be in app/views/admin/dashboard. The generator has also added the line get "dashboard/index" near the top of config/routes.rb; go ahead and delete it now.

Our dashboard is almost done–the next failure we see is

Failures:

  1) site administrator accesses the dashboard
     Failure/Error: page.should have_content 'Administration'
       expected there to be content "Administration" in "Admin::Dashboard#index"
     # ./spec/requests/admin_spec.rb:19:in `block (3 levels) in <top (required)>'
     # ./spec/requests/admin_spec.rb:18:in `block (2 levels) in <top (required)>'

The remaining expectations will pass when we set up a basic view in app/views/dashboard/index:

<h1>Administration</h1>

<ul>
  <li><%= link_to 'Manage Users' %></li>
  <li><%= link_to 'Manage Articles' %></li>
</ul>

And sure enough, our first spec passes! However, if you’ve been following along with the TDD, you may see a couple of pending specs from what the controller generator gave us a few minutes ago, and one that’s passing even though we haven’t written anything. Let’s leave spec/controllers/admin/dashboard_controller.rb as we’ll come back to it in awhile. The other pending spec files can be deleted. In fact, I typically configure RSpec to not even generate these specs, and create them as needed when testing my apps.

We’re not done testing yet–we’ve verified that a successfully logged-in user can get to the dashboard, but what about a user who’s not logged in? Let’s add a second request spec to test that:

# spec/requests/admin_spec.rb

it "is denied access when not logged in" do
  visit admin_path

  current_path.should eq login_path
  within 'h1' do
    page.should have_content 'Please Log In'
  end
end

And it fails:

1) site administrator is denied access when not logged in
   Failure/Error: current_path.should eq login_path

     expected: "/login"
          got: "/admin"

     (compared using ==)
   # ./spec/requests/admin_spec.rb:28:in `block (2 levels) in <top (required)>'

A quick before_filter added to dashboard_controller.rb should fix it:

class Admin::DashboardController < ApplicationController

  before_filter :authorize

  def index
  end
end

OK, the request spec is passing, but that generated controller spec is failing now. Why? Because we’re not specifying a logged-in user in the spec. Although we’ve successfully tested that people who aren’t logged in can’t access the dashboard, via a request spec, I prefer to test this at the controller level due to efficiency. Here’s how I’d make the spec pass:

# spec/controllers/admin/dashboard_controller_spec.rb

require 'spec_helper'

describe Admin::DashboardController do

  describe 'user access' do

    describe "GET 'index'" do
      it "returns http success" do
        user = User.create(
          email: 'admin@example.com',
          password: 'secret',
          password_confirmation: 'secret'
        )
        session[:user_id] = user

        get 'index'
        response.should be_success
      end
    end
  end

  describe 'non-user access' do
    describe "GET 'index'" do
      it "redirects to the login form" do
        get 'index'
        response.should redirect_to login_url
      end
    end
  end
end

This is the approach I’ll use down the road when we add functionality to the administration panel. In the meantime, we’ve got a dashboard for our application–but it’s just for show so far. There’s not much you can do once you’ve logged in. In part two we’ll convert a scaffolded resource to an administration dashboard. Watch for it in the next day or two.

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